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1.NBT.2 Understand that the two digits of a two-digit number represent amounts of tens and ones. Understand the following as special cases: (a) 10 can be thought of as a grouping of ten ones—called a “ten.” (b) The numbers from 11 to 19 are composed of a ten and one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or nine ones. (c) The numbers 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 refer to one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or nine tens (and 0 ones). (d) Show flexibility in composing and decomposing tens and ones.

1.NBT.4 Add within 100 using concrete models or drawings and strategies based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction; relate the strategy to a written method and explain the reasoning used including: (a) Adding a two-digit number and a one-digit number. (b) Adding a two-digit number and a multiple of 10. (c) Understanding that when adding two-digit numbers, combine like base-ten units such as tens and tens, ones and ones; and sometimes it is necessary to compose a ten. 1.NBT.5 Given a two-digit number, mentally find 10 more or 10 less than the number, without having to count; explain the reasoning used.

Subtract multiples of 10 in the range 10 to 90 from multiples of 10 in the range 10 to 90 (positive or zero differences), using concrete models or drawings and strategies based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction; relate the strategy to a written method and explain the reasoning used.

Given a two-digit number, mentally find 10 more or 10 less than the number, without having to count; explain the reasoning used.

Compare two two-digit numbers based on meanings of the tens and ones digits, recording the results of comparisons with the relational symbols >, <, =, and not equal.

Count to 120 (recognizing growth and repeating patterns), starting at any number less than 120. In this range, read and write numerals and represent a number of objects with a written numeral.

Use addition and subtraction within 20 to solve word problems involving situations of adding to, taking from, putting together, taking apart, and comparing, with unknowns in all positions.

Solve word problems that call for addition of three whole numbers whose sum is less than or equal to 20.

1.OA.4 Understand subtraction as an unknown-addend problem.

1.OA.5 Relate counting to addition and subtraction.

1.OA.6 Add and subtract within 20, demonstrating fluency (efficiently, accurately, and flexibly) for addition and subtraction within 10. Use mental strategies such as counting on; making ten; decomposing a number leading to a ten; using the relationship between addition and subtraction; and creating equivalent but easier or known sums.

1.OA.7 Understand the meaning of the equal sign (the value is the same on both sides of the equal sign), and determine if equations involving addition and subtraction are true or false.

1.OA.8 Using related equations, determine the unknown whole number in an addition or subtraction equation.

Apply (not necessary to name) properties of operations as strategies to add and subtract.

Order three objects by length; compare the lengths of two objects indirectly by using a third object.

Tell and write time in hours and half-hours using analog and digital clocks.

Organize, represent, and interpret data with up to three categories; ask and answer questions about the total number of data points, how many in each category, and how many more or less are in one category than in another.

Express the length of an object as a whole number of length units, by laying multiple copies of a shorter object (the length unit) end to end; understand that the length measurement of an object is the number of same-size length units that span it with no gaps or overlaps. Limit to contexts where the object being measured is spanned by a whole number of length units with no gaps or overlaps.

Compose two-dimensional shapes (rectangles, squares, trapezoids, triangles, half-circles, and quarter-circles) or three-dimensional shapes (cubes, right rectangular prisms, right circular cones, and right circular cylinders) to create a composite shape, and compose new shapes from the composite shape. Students do not need to learn formal names such as “right rectangular prism.”

Partition circles and rectangles into two and four equal shares, describe the shares using the words halves, fourths, and quarters, and use the phrases half of, fourth of, and quarter of. Note: fraction notation (½, ¼) is not expected at this grade level. Describe the whole as two of, or four of the shares. Understand for these examples that decomposing into more equal shares creates smaller shares.

Distinguish between defining attributes versus non-defining attributes; build and draw shapes that possess defining attributes.