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Use addition and subtraction to solve word problems within 20 by using concrete objects, drawings, and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem. a. Add to with change unknown to solve word problems within 20. b. Take from with change unknown to solve word problems within 20. c. Put together/take apart with addend unknown to solve word problems within 20. d. Compare quantities, with difference unknown, bigger unknown, and smaller unknown while solving word problems within 20.
Explain that the two digits of a two-digit number represent amounts of tens and ones. a. Identify a bundle of ten ones as a "ten." b. Identify the numbers from 11 to 19 as composed of a ten and one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or nine ones. c. Identify the numbers 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 as one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or nine tens (and 0 ones). C. The numbers 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 refer to one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or nine tens (and 0 ones).
Apply properties of operations as strategies to add and subtract. Examples: If 8 + 3 = 11 is known, then 3 + 8 = 11 is also known (commutative property of addition). To add 2 + 6 + 4, the second and third numbers can be added to make a ten, so 2 + 6 + 4 = 2 + 10 = 12 (associative property of addition). When adding 0 to a number, the result is the same number (identity property of zero for addition).
4 Explain subtraction as an unknown-addend problem. Example: subtracting 10 - 8 by finding the number that makes 10 when added to 8.
5 Relate counting to addition and subtraction Example: counting on 2 to add 2
6 Add and subtract within 20. a. Demonstrate fluency with addition and subtraction facts with sums or differences to 10 by counting on. b. Demonstrate fluency with addition and subtraction facts with sums or differences to 10 by making ten. c. Demonstrate fluency with addition and subtraction facts with sums or differences to 10 by decomposing a number leading to a ten. Example: 13 – 4 = 13 – 3 – 1 = 10 – 1 = 9 d. Demonstrate fluency with addition and subtraction facts with sums or differences to 10 by using the relationship between addition and subtraction. Example: Knowing that 8 + 4 = 12, one knows 12 – 8 = 4 e. Demonstrate fluency with addition and subtraction facts with sums or differences to 10 by creating equivalent but easier or known sums. Example: adding
7 Explain that the equal sign means "the same as." Determine whether equations involving addition and subtraction are true or false. Example: determining which of the following equations are true and which are false: 6 = 6, 7 =
8 – 1, 5 + 2 = 2 + 5, 4 + 1 = 5 + 2 8 Solve for the unknown whole number in various positions in an addition or subtraction equation, relating three whole numbers that would make it true. Example: determining the unknown number that makes the equation true in each of the equations 8 + ? = 11, 5 = ? – 3, 6 + 6 = ?.
Determine the length of an object using non-standard units with no gaps or overlaps, expressing the length of the object with a whole number.
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