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1.OA.4 Understand subtraction as an unknown-addend problem. For example, subtract 10 - 8 by finding the number that makes 10 when added to 8. 1.OA.5 Relate counting to addition and subtraction, e.g., by counting on 2 to add 2. 1.OA.6 Add and subtract within 20, demonstrating fluency with various strategies for addition and subtraction within 10. Strategies may include counting on; making ten, e.g., 8 + 6 = 8 + 2 + 4 = 10 + 4 = 14; decomposing a number leading to a ten, e.g., 13 - 4 = 13 - 3 - 1 = 10 - 1 = 9; using the relationship between addition and subtraction, e.g., knowing that 8 + 4 = 12, one knows 12 - 8 = 4; and creating equivalent but easier or known sums, e.g., adding 6 + 7 by creating the known equivalent 6 + 6 + 1 = 12 + 1 = 13.
Use addition and subtraction within 20 to solve word problems involving situations of adding to, taking from, putting together, taking apart and comparing, with unknowns in all positions, e.g., by using objects, drawings, and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem. See Table 1, page 95.
Apply properties of operations as strategies to add and subtract. For example, if 8 + 3 = 11 is known, then 3 + 8 = 11 is also known (Commutative Property of Addition); to add 2 + 6 + 4, the second two numbers can be added to make a ten, so 2 + 6 + 4 = 2 + 10 = 12 (Associative Property of Addition). Students need not use formal terms for these properties.
1.OA.7 Understand the meaning of the equal sign, and determine if equations involving addition and subtraction are true or false. For example, which of the following equations are true and which are false? 6 = 6; 7 = 8 – 1; 5 + 2 = 2 + 5; 4 + 1 = 5 + 2.
1.OA.8 Determine the unknown whole number in an addition or subtraction equation relating three whole numbers. For example, determine the unknown number that makes the equation true in each of the equations: 8 + __ = 11; 5 = __ - 3; 6 + 6 = __ .
Understand that the two digits of a two-digit number represent amounts of tens and ones. Understand the following as special cases: 10 can be thought of as a bundle of ten ones — called a “ten;” the numbers from 11 to 19 are composed of a ten and one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or nine ones; and the numbers 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 refer to one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or nine tens (and 0 ones).
Express the length of an object as a whole number of length units by laying multiple copies of a shorter object (the length unit) end to end; understand that the length measurement of an object is the number of same-size length units that span it with no gaps or overlaps. Limit to contexts where the object being measured is spanned by a whole number of length units with no gaps or overlaps.
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