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(4) Understand subtraction as an unknown-addend problem. For example, subtract 10 – 8 by finding the number that makes 10 when added to 8. Add and subtract within 20. (5) Relate counting to addition and subtraction (e.g., by counting on 2 to add 2). (6) Add and subtract within 20, demonstrating fluency for addition and subtraction within 10 and use strategies such ascounting on making ten (e.g., 8 + 6 = 8 + 2 + 4 = 10 + 4 = 14); decomposing a number leading to a ten (e.g., 13 – 4 = 13 – 3 – 1 = 10 – 1 = 9); using the relationship between addition and subtraction (e.g., knowing that 8 + 4 = 12, one knows 12 – 8= 4); and creating equivalent but easier or known sums (e.g., adding 6 +7 by creating the known equivalent 6 + 6 + 1 = 12 + 1 = 13).
Distinguish between defining attributes (e.g., triangles are closed and three-sided) versus non-defining attributes (e.g., color, orientation, overall size) ; build and draw shapes to possess defining attributes.
Compose two-dimensional shapes (rectangles, squares, trapezoids, triangles, half-circles, and quarter-circles) or three-dimensional shapes (cubes, right rectangular prisms, right circular cones, and right circular cylinders) to create a composite shape, and compose new shapes from the composite shape.1
Partition circles and rectangles into two and four equal shares, describe the shares using the words halves, fourths, and quarters, and use the phrases half of, fourth of, and quarter of. Describe the whole as two of, or four of the shares. Understand for these examples that decomposing into more equal shares creates smaller shares.
Solve word problems that call for addition of three whole numbers whose sum is less than or equal to 20, e.g., by using objects, drawings, and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem.
Add within 100, including; adding a two-digit number and a one-digit number and adding a two-digit number and a multiple of 10, using concrete models or drawings and strategies based on place value, properties of operations and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction. Relate the strategy to a written method and explain the reasoning used. Understand that in adding two-digit numbers, one adds tens and tens, ones and ones, and sometimes it is necessary to compose a ten.
West Virginia has adopted the Next Generation Content Standards and Objectives (NxG CSOs). West Virginia schools will administer the West Virginia General Summative Assessment to measure student proficiency of NxG CSOs standards. Education Galaxy’s West Virginia General Summative Assessment preparation program provides online assessment and practice for students in Grades K-6 to help build mastery towards the NxG CSOs. Our unique online program is easy to use and enjoyable for both teachers and students. Students work on their Study Plans practicing important concepts while teachers pull formative assessment reports to identify the strengths and weaknesses of their classroom and individual students.